Industrial Refrigeration: Ammonia and CO2 Systems

Breaking down your options as the R22 refrigerant is phased out

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Industrial Refrigeration: Ammonia and CO2 Systems

 

The turn of the new year signaled the most recent step of the R22 refrigerant phase-out in the United States.

As a reminder, here’s the timeline according to the EPA final rule:

  • On January 1, 2018, R22 production dropped 30 percent from the 2017 supply to 9 million pounds
  • On January 1, 2019, production will drop 55 percent from the 2018 supply to 4 million pounds
  • On January 1, 2020, R22 will be phased out completely with no new or imported R22 allowed in the U.S.

Since the supply just dropped at the beginning of this year, that means R22 prices (and repair prices) are increasing yet again.

If your refrigeration system uses R22, or any other refrigerant with a high Global Warming Potential (GWP), you have some decisions to make — and the clock is ticking.

 

CO2 Refrigeration: Debunking 3 Common Myths

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Stellar is gearing up for ATMOsphere America 2017, the leading forum for discussion about the business case for natural refrigerants in North America. The three-day conference next month will host more than 400 industry stakeholders in San Diego, California, and will feature discussions about the latest in refrigeration technology and regulation. Among the hot-button issues in the industry: the diminishing role of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCS).

 

15 Common Ammonia Safety Issues Your Refrigeration Personnel Can Control (And Correct)

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15 Common Ammonia Safety Issues Your Refrigeration Personnel Can Control (And Correct)

More changes are coming to the food and beverage industry as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to crack down on ammonia safety.

The EPA has launched a three-year, nationwide enforcement and compliance initiative focused on reducing the risks of chemical releases from facilities that use extremely hazardous chemicals, including those that use ammonia as a refrigerant.

 

5 Types of Low-charge Refrigeration Systems

Packaged refrigeration equipment series

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5 Types of Low-charge Refrigeration Systems

After months of discussions and hours of negotiations, nearly 200 nations have now reached a deal to limit the use of greenhouse gases worldwide. In October, world leaders agreed to the deal that would gradually phase out the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) starting in 2019.

 

Natural Refrigerants: 5 Benefits of Packaged Refrigeration Systems

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There has been a push to take advantage of the benefits of ammonia while reducing the risks—and it has resulted in an innovative solution: low-charge packaged refrigeration systems that use ammonia and a secondary refrigerant (such as glycol). This allows facilities to reap the benefits of ammonia’s excellent thermodynamic properties while minimizing the charge and risk.

 

[Infographic] 6 Benefits of a CO2/NH3 Cascade System

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[Infographic] 6 Benefits of a CO2/NH3 Cascade System

CO2/NH3 cascade systems offer food processors a practical way to increase efficiency. By using two centralized refrigeration systems working in unison to provide cooling temperatures, they maximize the effect of carbon dioxide and ammonia. The high-temperature system pulls heat away from the low-temperature system, which in turn uses recirculated liquid to cool the evaporators.

Cascade systems that use CO2 as a secondary refrigerant offer unique advantages. Carbon dioxide is nontoxic and nonflammable, and is also less likely to damage food products in the event of a release. For food plant owners, CO2/NH3 cascade systems offer six key benefits, which are detailed below.

 

[Infographic] 2 Key Questions to Answer Before Your Packaged Refrigeration Equipment Installation

Packaged refrigeration equipment series

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[Infographic] 2 Key Questions to Answer Before Your Packaged Refrigeration Equipment Installation

For the past two weeks, we’ve discussed packaged refrigeration equipment: a system that uses ammonia or CO2 and a secondary refrigerant, allowing facilities to reap the benefits of ammonia while also minimizing the charge and risk. We’ve already reviewed the various ways these systems can benefit food processors and discussed the five different types of these low-charge chillers available. However, if you decide to introduce packaged refrigeration equipment into your food manufacturing plant, there are some key questions you must answer before installation to ensure an efficient, smooth installation process.

 

4 Common Misperceptions About Ammonia Processes

Takeaways from the Process Cooling webinar

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4 Common Misunderstandings About Ammonia Processes

Recently, Process Cooling hosted a fantastic webinar on ammonia safety, discussing practical advice for industrial refrigeration system operators. As ammonia usage continues to grow with the changing refrigeration landscape, it’s important for all of us to understand ways to keep our plants and personnel safe.

 

The Latest in Natural Refrigerants: ATMOsphere America 2015 Recap

5 key sessions from the annual refrigeration conference

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ATMOsphere America 2015 Recap: The latest in natural refrigerants

I recently joined hundreds of refrigeration stakeholders in Atlanta for ATMOsphere America 2015, an annual natural refrigerants conference. Stellar was among the 37 sponsors, and I among the group of 60-plus speakers, leading a presentation on the advantages of packaged refrigeration equipment. I also attended several sessions myself, leaving the conference with valuable takeaways on the refrigeration industry, including my favorites below:

 

[SlideShare] 3 Things to Know About the Changing Refrigeration Climate

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Did you tune in to our Food Engineering webinar last week? We discussed the changing refrigeration climate, including what you should know about revised compliance schedules, innovative refrigeration technologies and the pros and cons for each. You can check out our full presentation in the SlideShare provided below.